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The forward exchange rate refers to an exchange rate that is quoted and traded today but for delivery and payment on a specific future date.
The participants include large banks, multinational corporations, governments, and speculators.
Any company operating globally must deal in foreign currencies.
It has to pay suppliers in other countries with a currency different from its home country’s currency.
Authors test the suggested model on high-frequency time series data of USD/CAD and examine the ability to forecast exchange rate values for the horizon of one day.
To determine the forecasting efficiency, they perform a comparative statistical out-of-sample analysis of the tested model with autoregressive models and the standard neural network.
They also incorporate genetic algorithm as an optimizing technique for adapting parameters of ANN which is then compared with standard backpropagation and backpropagation combined with K-means clustering algorithm.
Finally, the authors find out that their suggested hybrid neural network is able to produce more accurate forecasts than the standard models and can be helpful in eliminating the risk of making the bad decision in decision-making process. Profits or losses accrue as the exchange rate of that currency fluctuates on the open market.This reduces rounding issues and the need to use excessive numbers of decimal places.There are some exceptions to this rule: for example, the Japanese often quote their currency as the base to other currencies.There are various ways to measure RER. Thus the real exchange rate is the exchange rate times the relative prices of a market basket of goods in the two countries.For example, the purchasing power of the US dollar relative to that of the euro is the dollar price of a euro (dollars per euro) times the euro price of one unit of the market basket (euros/goods unit) divided by the dollar price of the market basket (dollars per goods unit), and hence is dimensionless.Even if a company expects to be paid in its own currency, it must assess the risk that the buyer may not be able to pay the full amount due to currency fluctuations.