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The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire in the early 18th century enabled the Sikh Empire's influence to control larger areas until the British East-India Company gained ascendancy over the Indian subcontinent.An intellectual movement to counter the Hindu renaissance was led by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, who helped to found the All-India Muslim League in 1901 and envisioned as well as advocated for the two-nation theory.
Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre-long (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest and China in the far northeast respectively.Initially a dominion, Pakistan adopted a new constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic.An ethnic civil war in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh.The Early Medieval period (642–1219 AD) witnessed the spread of Islam in the region.During this period, Sufi missionaries played a pivotal role in converting a majority of the regional Buddhist and Hindu population to Islam.The post-independence history of Pakistan has been characterised by periods of military rule and since 2008, a transition to democracy, amid conflicts with neighbouring India.
The country continues to face challenging problems, including illiteracy, healthcare and corruption, although it has significantly reduced poverty, Pakistan is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, ECO, SAARC, Developing Eight, the G20 developing nations, Group of 24, Group of 77 and ECOSOC. Pakistan is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, the Paris Agreement and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.As a result of the Pakistan Movement led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the subcontinent's struggle for independence, Pakistan was created in 1947 as an independent nation for Muslims from the regions in the east and west of the Subcontinent where there was a Muslim majority.It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a similar variation in its geography and wildlife.It is separated from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's narrow Wakhan Corridor in the north, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.The territory that now constitutes Pakistan is considered a cradle of civilisation which was previously home to several ancient cultures, including the Mehrgarh of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Muslims, Turco-Mongols, Afghans and Sikhs.By this time, with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament and itself effectively made an arm of British administration, the Company began to more consciously enter non-economic arenas such as education, social reform, and culture.